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Imfuno yehlabathi yeparaquat inokunyuka

Xa i-ICI yazisa i-paraquat kwimarike ngo-1962, umntu wayengenakuze acinge ukuba i-paraquat iya kuba nekamva elibi kunye nelinzima kwixesha elizayo. Lo mchiza ubalaseleyo ongakhethiyo udweliswe kuluhlu lwesibini ngobukhulu kwihlabathi lokutshabalalisa ukhula. Ukuhla kwakukhe kwaba neentloni, kodwa ngexabiso eliphezulu eliqhubekayo le-Shuangcao kulo nyaka kwaye kusenokwenzeka ukuba liqhubeke nokunyuka, liyazabalaza kwimarike yehlabathi, kodwa iparaquat efikelelekayo ingenisa ekuzeni kwethemba.

Egqwesileyo engakhethiyo yokutshabalalisa ukhula

IParaquat sisichiza sokutshabalalisa ukhula kwibipyridine. Umchiza wokutshabalalisa ukhula ngumchiza ongakhethiyo wonxibelelwano owaphuhliswa yi-ICI ngeminyaka yoo-1950. Inoluhlu olubanzi lwe-herbicidal, isenzo soqhagamshelwano olukhawulezayo, ukumelana nokhukuliseko lwemvula, kunye nokungakhethi. Nezinye iimpawu ezibalaseleyo.

IParaquat ingasetyenziselwa ukulawula ukutyalwa kwangaphambili okanye emva kokuhluma kokhula kumabhoma, umbona, umoba, iimbotyi zesoya kunye nezinye izityalo. Ingasetyenziswa njenge desiccant ngexesha lokuvuna kunye nanjenge-defoliant.

I-Paraquat ibulala i-membrane ye-chloroplast yokhula ngokukodwa ngokuqhagamshelana neendawo eziluhlaza zokhula, ezichaphazela ukubunjwa kwe-chlorophyll kwikhula, ngaloo ndlela ichaphazela i-photosynthesis yokhula, kwaye ekugqibeleni inqande ngokukhawuleza ukukhula kokhula. I-Paraquat inempembelelo eyomeleleyo eyonakalisa izicubu eziluhlaza ze-monocot kunye nezityalo zedicot. Ngokuqhelekileyo, ukhula lunokuguqulwa umbala kwiiyure ezi-2 ukuya kwezi-3 emva kokufakwa.

Imeko kunye nemeko yokuthumela ngaphandle kweparaquat

Ngenxa yetyhefu yeparaquat emzimbeni womntu kunye nobungozi obunokubakho kwimpilo yabantu kwinkqubo yokusetyenziswa ngokungaqhelekanga, iparaquat ivaliwe kumazwe angaphezu kwama-30 aquka i-European Union, iChina, iThailand, iSwitzerland kunye neBrazil.
图虫创意-样图-919600533043937336
Ngokutsho kwedatha ekhutshwe yi-360 yeeNgxelo zoPhando, ukuthengiswa kwe-paraquat yehlabathi jikelele kwi-2020 kuye kwawa malunga ne-100 yezigidi zeedola zaseMelika. Ngokwengxelo yeSyngenta malunga neparaquat ekhutshwe ngo-2021, iSyngenta ngoku ithengisa iparaquat kumazwe angama-28. Kukho iinkampani ezingama-377 kwihlabathi jikelele ezibhalise imixube yeparaquat esebenzayo. I-Syngenta yenza ingxelo malunga nenye yeentengiso zehlabathi zeparaquat. Ikota.

Kwi-2018, i-China yathumela i-64,000 yeetoni ze-paraquat kunye neetoni ze-56,000 kwi-2019. Iindawo eziphambili zokuthumela ngaphandle kwe-paraquat yase-China kwi-2019 yiBrazil, i-Indonesia, iNigeria, i-United States, iMexico, iThailand, i-Australia, njl.

Nangona i-paraquat ivaliwe kumazwe abalulekileyo avelisa ezolimo afana ne-European Union, iBrazil, ne-China, kwaye umthamo wokuthumela ngaphandle uncitshisiwe kwiminyaka embalwa edlulileyo, phantsi kweemeko ezikhethekileyo ukuba amaxabiso e-glyphosate kunye ne-glufosinate-ammonium ayaqhubeka ibe phezulu kulo nyaka kwaye kunokwenzeka ukuba iqhubeke nokunyuka , IParaquat, uhlobo oluphantse luphelelwe lithemba, luya kuzisa amandla amasha.

Amaxabiso aphezulu eShuangcao akhuthaza imfuno yehlabathi yeparaquat

Ngaphambili, xa ixabiso le-glyphosate liyi-26,000 yuan / ton, i-paraquat yayiyi-13,000 yuan / ton. Ixabiso langoku le-glyphosate lisekho i-80,000 yuan / ton, kwaye ixabiso le-glufosinate lingaphezulu kwe-350,000 yuan. Ngaphambili, imfuno ephezulu yehlabathi ye-paraquat yayimalunga neetoni ezingama-260,000 (ngokusekelwe kwi-42% yemveliso yangempela), malunga neetoni ezingama-80,000. Imarike yaseTshayina imalunga neetoni ezili-15 000, iBrazil iitoni ezili-10 000, iThailand iitoni ezili-10 000, yaye iIndonesia, iUnited States neThailand. Nigeria, India kunye namanye amazwe.图虫创意-样图-924679718413139989

Ngokuyekiswa kwamayeza emveli afana neTshayina, iBrazil, neThailand, ngokwethiyori, ngaphezulu kwe-30,000 yeetoni zendawo yentengiso ikhululiwe. Nangona kunjalo, kulo nyaka, ngokunyuka ngokukhawuleza kwamaxabiso e-"Shuangcao" kunye ne-Diquat, kunye nemarike engabonakaliyo e-United States Ngokukhululeka kokusetyenziswa komatshini, imfuno e-US okanye i-North America market iye yanda malunga ne-20%, eye yavuselela imfuno yeparaquat kwaye yaxhasa ixabiso layo ukuya kumlinganiselo othile. Okwangoku, umlinganiselo wexabiso / wokusebenza weparaquat ukhuphisana ngakumbi ukuba ungaphantsi kwe-40,000. amandla.

Ukongezelela, abafundi abakuMzantsi-mpuma Asiya ngokuqhelekileyo banikela ingxelo yokuba kwimimandla efana neVietnam, iMalaysia, neBrazil, ukhula lukhula ngokukhawuleza ngexesha leemvula, yaye iparaquat ikwazi ukuxhathisa kakuhle ukhukuliseko lwemvula. Amaxabiso eminye imichiza yokutshabalalisa ukhula enyuke kakhulu. Amafama kwezi ndawo asekho Kukho imfuneko engqongqo. Abathengi basekuhlaleni bathi ithuba lokufumana i-paraquat kwiitshaneli ezimpunga ezifana norhwebo lomda luyanda.

Ukongeza, imathiriyeli ekrwada yeparaquat, ipyridine, yeyeshishini lemichiza yamalahle esezantsi. Ixabiso langoku lizinzile kwi-28,000 yuan/toni, nto leyo ngokwenene inyuka kakhulu ukusuka kwinqanaba eliphantsi le-21,000 yuan/toni, kodwa ngelo xesha i-yuan/toni eyi-21,000 yayisele iphantsi kunomgca weendleko we-2.4 Ishumi lamawaka eyuan/toni. . Ngoko ke, nangona ixabiso le-pyridine liphakanyisiwe, lisekho kwixabiso elifanelekileyo, eliya kunceda ngakumbi ukunyuka kwemfuno yehlabathi yeparaquat. Abaninzi abavelisi be-paraquat basekhaya kulindeleke ukuba bazuze kuyo.
Umthamo wamashishini amakhulu emveliso yeparaquat

Kulo nyaka, ukukhutshwa kwamandla okuvelisa i-paraquat (nge-100%) kulinganiselwe, kwaye i-China ngumlimi oyintloko we-paraquat. Kuyaqondwa ukuba iinkampani zasekhaya ezifana ne-Red Sun, i-Jiangsu Nuoen, i-Shandong Luba, i-Hebei Baofeng, i-Hebei Lingang, kunye ne-Syngenta Nantong zivelisa i-paraquat. Ngaphambili, xa iparaquat yayikwizinga eliphezulu, iShandong Dacheng, iSanonda, iLvfeng, iYongnong, iQiaochang, kunye neXianlong zaziphakathi kwabavelisi beparaquat. Kuyaqondwa ukuba ezi nkampani azisavelisi paraquat.

I-Red Sun inezityalo ezintathu zokuvelisa i-paraquat. Phakathi kwabo, iNanjing Red Sun Biochemical Co., Ltd. inomthamo wokuvelisa iitoni eziyi-8,000-10,000. Ibekwe kwiNanjing Chemical Industrial Park. Kunyaka ophelileyo, i-42% yeemveliso ezibonakalayo zinemveliso yenyanga ye-2,500-3,000 yeetoni. Kulo nyaka, yayeka ngokupheleleyo imveliso. . Isityalo sase-Anhui Guoxing sinamandla okuvelisa iitoni ezingama-20,000. Isityalo saseShandong Kexin sinamandla okuvelisa iitoni ezingama-2,000. Umthamo wemveliso weRed Sun ukhululwa kwi-70%.

I-Jiangsu Nuoen inamandla okuvelisa iitoni ze-12,000 ze-paraquat, kwaye imveliso yangempela malunga neetoni ze-10,000, ezikhupha malunga ne-80% yomthamo wayo; I-Shandong Luba inamandla okuvelisa iitoni ezili-10,000 zeparaquat, kwaye imveliso yayo yokwenene imalunga neetoni ezingama-7,000, ezikhupha malunga ne-70% yomthamo wayo wokuvelisa; Imveliso ye-paraquat ye-Hebei Baofeng yi-5,000 yeetoni; UHebei Lingang unamandla okuvelisa iitoni ezingama-5,000 zeparaquat, kwaye imveliso yangempela malunga neetoni ezingama-3,500; ISyngenta Nantong inomthamo wemveliso yeetoni ezingama-10,000 zeparaquat, kwaye eyona mveliso imalunga neetoni ezingama-5,000.

Ukongezelela, i-Syngenta inendawo yokuvelisa i-9,000-toni kwisityalo sase-Huddersfield e-United Kingdom kunye ne-1,000-ton eBrazil. Kuyaqondwa ukuba lo nyaka uphinde wachatshazelwa ngubhubhane kwimeko yokunciphisa kakhulu imveliso, ukunciphisa imveliso nge-50% ngexesha elinye.
isishwankathelo
IParaquat iseneengenelo ezingenakubuyiselwa kumazwe amaninzi kwihlabathi liphela. Ukongezelela, amaxabiso akhoyo e-glyphosate kunye ne-glufosinate njengabakhuphisana nabo bakwizinga eliphezulu kwaye unikezelo luqinile, olubonelela ngeengcamango ezininzi zokunyuka kwemfuno yeparaquat.

IiOlimpiki zaseBusika eBeijing ziza kubanjwa kweyoMdumba kulo nyaka uzayo. Ukusukela ngoJanuwari 2022, iifektri ezininzi ezinkulu kumantla eTshayina zijongene nomngcipheko wokunqumamisa imveliso kangangeentsuku ezingama-45. Okwangoku, kunokwenzeka kakhulu, kodwa kusekho iqondo elithile lokungaqiniseki. Ukunqunyanyiswa kwemveliso kunyanzelekile ukuba kuqhubele phambili ukukhulisa uxinzelelo phakathi konikezelo kunye nemfuno ye-glyphosate kunye nezinye iimveliso. Ukuveliswa kweParaquat kunye nokuthengiswa kulindeleke ukuba kuthathe eli thuba lokufumana ukunyusa.

 


Ixesha lokuposa: Nov-24-2021