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Ukumelana neyeza

Ukuxhathisa ngemichiza yokubulala iintsholongwane kubhekisa kwinto ezuzwe njengelifa yohlobo lwe-biotype yokhula ukuze iphile kwisicelo sokutshabalalisa ukhula apho abantu bokuqala babesengozini. I-biotype liqela lezityalo ngaphakathi kweentlobo ezineempawu zebhayoloji (ezinje ngokuxhathisa kwisibulala-zinambuzane esithile) engaqhelekanga kubemi ngokubanzi.

Ukuxhathisa iyeza lokubulala intsholongwane kunokuba yingxaki enkulu ejongene nabalimi baseNorth Carolina. Ehlabathini lonke, ngaphezu kwe-100 biotypes zokhula ziyaziwa ukuba ziyanyangeka kwisibulali-magciwane esinye okanye ezininzi ezisetyenziswa ngokuxhaphakileyo. EMantla Carolina, ngoku sine-biotype ye-goosegrass enganyangekiyo kwi-dinitroaniline herbicides (i-Prowl, Sonalan, kunye ne-Treflan), i-biotype ye-cocklebur enganyangekiyo kwi-MSMA kunye ne-DSMA, kunye ne-biotype ye-ryegrass yonyaka enganyangekiyo neHoelon.

Kude kube kutshanje, bekungekho nkxalabo incinci malunga nokuphuhliswa kokuxhathisa i-herbicide eMantla Carolina. Nangona sineentlobo ezintathu ezine-biotypes ezinganyangekiyo kwimichiza ethile yokubulala ukhula, ukwenzeka kwezi biotypes kuchazwe ngokulula ngokukhulisa izityalo kwindawo enye. Abalimi ababejikeleza izityalo babengenasidingo sakuxhalaba malunga nokumelana. Imeko, nangona kunjalo, itshintshile kule minyaka idlulileyo ngenxa yophuhliso kunye nokusetyenziswa ngokubanzi kwemichiza yokubulala ukhula eneendlela ezifanayo zokwenza (Iitheyibhile 15 kunye ne-16). Indlela yokusebenza ibhekisa kwinkqubo ethile apho iyeza lokubulala ukhula lubulala isityalo esichaphazeleka lula. Namhlanje, amayeza okubulala ukhula anendlela efanayo yokusebenza anokusetyenziswa kwizityalo ezininzi ezinokuthi zikhule ngokujikeleza. Eyona nto ixhalabisayo yile miyeza yokubulala ukhula ethintela inkqubo ye-ALS enzyme (Itheyibhile 15). Uninzi lwezinto zokubulala ukhula ezisetyenziswa kuthi zii-ALS inhibitors. Ukongeza, uninzi lweeherbicides ezintsha ekulindeleke ukuba zibhaliswe kwiminyaka emi-5 ezayo zii-ALS inhibitors. Njengeqela, ii-ALS inhibitors zinempawu ezininzi ezibonakala ngathi zibenza bathambekele kuphuhliso lokuchasana nesityalo.

Amayeza okubulala ukhula asetyenziswa kwimveliso yezityalo kuba nje isebenza kakhulu okanye ibonga kakhulu kunezinye iindlela zokulawula ukhula. Ukuba ukuxhathisa kwisitshabalalisi esithile sokhula okanye usapho lwamayeza okutshabalalisa ukhula kuye kwavela, ezinye iindlela zokubulala ukhula ezifanelekileyo zisenokungabikho. Umzekelo, okwangoku ayikho enye indlela yokubulala iintsholongwane yokulawula iryegrass enganyangekiyo neHoelon. Yiyo loo nto, amayeza okubulala ukhula kufuneka ajongwe njengezixhobo zokukhusela. Kufuneka sisebenzise i-herbicides ngendlela ethintela ukukhula koxhathiso.

Ukuqonda ukuba ukunganyangeki kuvela njani kubalulekile ekuqondeni indlela yokuphepha ukuxhathisa. Zimbini izinto ekufuneka zenziwe zokunganyangeki kweyeza. Okokuqala, ukhula ngalunye olunemizila yemfuza ebonisa ukunganyangeki kufuneka lubekhona kubemi bomthonyama. Okwesibini, uxinzelelo lokukhetha olubangelwa kukusetyenziswa kakhulu kweyeza apho aba bantu banqabileyo banganyangekiyo kufuneka kusebenze kubemi. Abantu abachasayo, ukuba bakho, benza ipesenti esezantsi kakhulu kubemi bebonke. Ngokwesiqhelo, abantu abanganyangekiyo bakhona kwii-frequencies ukusuka kwi-1 ukuya kwi-100,000 ukuya kwi-1 kwizigidi ezili-100. Ukuba iyeza lokubulala ukhula okanye iyeza elinendlela efanayo lisetyenziswa ngokuqhubekekayo, abantu abachaphazelekayo bayabulawa kodwa abo banganyangekiyo abonzakaliswa kwaye bavelisa imbewu. Ukuba uxinzelelo lokhetho luyaqhubeka kwizizukulwana ezininzi, i-biotype enganyangekiyo ekugqibeleni iya kwenza ipesenti ephezulu yabemi. Ngelo xesha, ulawulo lokhula olwamkelekileyo alusenakufunyanwa ngohlobo oluthile lomchiza wokutshabalalisa ukhula.

Elona candelo libaluleke kakhulu lesicwangciso-qhinga solawulo ukunqanda uguquko kumachiza okhula kunye nomchiza kukujikeleza kwemichiza yokubulala ukhula ineendlela ezahlukeneyo zokwenza. Musa ukusebenzisa amayeza okubulala ukhula kudidi lomngcipheko omkhulu kwizityalo ezimbini ezilandelelanayo. Ngokunjalo, musa ukwenza ngaphezulu kwesibini kokufakwa kwezi zitshabalalisi zemithi iphambili kwisityalo esinye. Musa ukusebenzisa iyeza lokubulala ukhula kudidi lomngcipheko olulinganiselweyo kwizityalo ezingaphezulu kwesibini zilandelelana. Amayeza okubulala iintsholongwane kudidi olunomngcipheko osezantsi kufuneka akhethwe xa eza kulawula ukuxubana kwetanki okunzima okanye ukusetyenziswa ngokulandelelana kwemichiza yokubulala ukhula eneendlela ezahlukeneyo zokwenza zihlala zithathwa njengezinto zesicwangciso sokulawula ukumelana. Ukuba izinto zomxube wetanki okanye izicelo ezilandelelanayo zikhethwe ngobulumko, esi sicwangciso sinokuba luncedo kakhulu ekulibazisekeni kokuvela kwendalo. Ngelishwa, uninzi lweemfuno zomxube wetanki okanye usetyenziso olulandelelanayo ukunqanda ukuxhathisa aluhlangatyezwa ngemixube esetyenziswa ngokuqhelekileyo. Ukusebenza ngokukuko ekuthinteleni ukuvela kwendalo, zombini i-herbicides esetyenziswe ngokulandelelana okanye kwimixube yetanki kufuneka ibenolawulo olufanayo kwaye kufuneka ibe nokuzingisa okufanayo.

Kangangoko kunokwenzeka, dibanisa iindlela ezingezozamachiza zokulawula ezifana nokulima kwinkqubo yolawulo lokhula. Gcina iirekhodi ezifanelekileyo zokusetyenziswa kweyeza kumhlaba ngamnye ukuze zisetyenziswe kwixesha elizayo.

Ukufumanisa ukhula olunganyangekiyo. Uninzi lokusilela kolawulo lokhula akubangelwa kukunganyangeki kweyeza. Phambi kokucinga ukuba ukhula olusindayo kwisicelo sokutshabalalisa ukhula luyanyangeka, susa zonke izinto ezinokubangela ulawulo olubi. Izinto ezinokubangela ukusilela kolawulo lokhula zibandakanya izinto ezinje ngokusetyenziswa gwenxa (ezinje ngezinga elingonelanga, ukugubungela kakubi, ukufakwa kakubi, okanye ukungabikho komncedisi); iimeko zemozulu ezingathandekiyo zomsebenzi olungileyo wokubulala ukhula; Ixesha elingafanelekanga lokusetyenziswa kweyeza (ngakumbi, ukusebenzisa i-postemergence herbicides emva kokhula kukhulu kakhulu kulawulo olufanelekileyo); nokhula oluvelayo emva kokufakwa kweyeza lentsalela elifutshane.

Nje ukuba kususwe zonke izinto ezinokubangela ulawulo oluphantsi, oku kulandelayo kungabonisa ubukho be-biotype enganyangekiyo: (2) Izityalo ezisempilweni zoluhlobo kuthethwa ngazo zingene phakathi kwizityalo zohlobo olunye ezibuleweyo; (3) iintlobo ezingalawulwayo ngokwesiqhelo zichaphazeleka kakhulu kwiyeza elibulala ukhula; kwaye (4) intsimi inembali yokusebenzisa kakhulu iyeza lokubulala ukhula elichaphazelekayo okanye iyeza lokubulala ukhula kunye nendlela efanayo yokusebenza. Ukuba ukrokrelwa ukuxhathisa, kwangoko yeka ukusebenzisa iyeza lokubulala ukhula elichaphazelekayo kunye neminye imichiza yokubulala ukhula inendlela efanayo yokusebenza.

 


Ixesha Post: May-07-2021